On the afternoon of Thursday, 24 Dhul Qada, 10 AH, the Prophet mounted his she-camel to set out for Makkah. A multitude of people, over 100,000 in number, accompanied him. Jabir, a Companion of the Prophet said, "I could see people as far as my eyes could see." On the way more people joined the caravan. When the Prophet reached a place called Dhul Hulaifa, he spent the night there and in the morning took a bath and put on Ihram, the pilgrims’ dress, made up of two unstitched sheets (women wear normal dress and cover their heads by a scarf). Afterwards he moved towards Mecca saying the talbiyah prayer: "Here I am, O Allah, Here I am at Your service! You have no partner, here I am. All praise, grace and dominion belongs to You. You have no partner." The multitude joined him in repeating these words.
After travelling for nine days, the Prophet reached Mecca on 4 Dhul Hijjah. He first went to the Sacred Mosque. On seeing the Kabah, he said: "O Allah! increase the greatness and sublimity of Your House." And further added, "O Allah, You are peace, with You is peace. Our Lord, keep us alive with peace." Afterwards he performed tawaf—going round the Kabah seven times. As he did this, he kept calling upon God: "Our Lord, give us goodness in this world and goodness in the Hereafter, and keep us safe from the fire of Hell." When he had finished going round the Kabah, he prayed two rakat at the Maqam Ibrahim—the Station of Abraham, and went towards the Black Stone and kissed it. He moved towards Safa, saying that Safa and Marwa were one of the signs of Allah. He went up the Safa hill, till he could see the Kabah. (At that time the hills of Safa and Marwa were outside the Sacred Mosque, but now after the expansion of the grounds, they come within the boundary wall).
The Prophet walked briskly between the two hills seven times and ended the walk at Marwa. Some of the seven laps he did on camel-back. Perhaps he did so that people could see him from a distance. The Prophet was staying in Mecca at a place called al-Bath. After staying there for four days, he moved to Mina on 8 Dhul Hijjah and the next morning, he moved off towards Arafat. At Arafat, he stayed in a small tent in the Arnah valley. In the afternoon he rode his she-camel as far as the middle part of the Arafat valley. Here, mounted on his she-camel, he gave a sermon which is known as the Sermon of the Farewell Hajj. Today, at this very spot there stands a mosque by the name of Namirah.
In his message to humanity, the Prophet emphasized the highest moral values. Here the Prophet announced: "No Arab is superior to a non-Arab and no non-Arab is superior to an Arab. No black man is superior to a red man and no red man is superior to a black, except through taqwa or fear of Allah. The most noble among you is the one who is deeply conscious of God."
While the Prophet was praying here, the very last verse of the Qur’an was revealed to him, and so the Holy Book was completed.
After delivering the sermon, the Prophet performed two prayers together—Zuhr and Asr. After prayers, the Prophet came to the spot in Arafat which known as the "standing place". Here, mounted on his she-camel, the Prophet prayed till sunset. He said that the prayer of this day was the best of all. The Prophet was praying with divine feelings. He was praying, the people around him were praying, some standing, some mounted on their animals—weeping and crying to their Lord for His favors, vowing for repentance and craving His blessing. It was such a great moment that the Prophet said, "Arafat is Hajj." He prayed, "O Allah, You are listening to me. You are watching my place. You are aware of my hidden and open affairs. I am miserable and needy, I am pleading to You. Asking your protection..."
After sunset, the Prophet rode towards Muzdalifa. He asked Usama ibn Zayd to ride his camel too. He went on saying Labbayk Allahumma Labbayk—"Here I am O Lord, Here I am". And the people were chanting the same. The Prophet asked people not to run, but to move slowly and calmly, as running was no work of piety. On reaching Muzdalifa, the Prophet asked his Companion, Bilal to give the call for prayers. There he said the Maghrib and the Isha prayer together. The Prophet took rest at night and in the morning after praying, he went towards a place called Mashar Haram where he offered further for prayers. Before sunrise, the Prophet left Muzdalifah for Mina, after taking seven small pebbles from there. On the way, passing through the valley of Muhssar, he asked people to move fast, as this was the place, where the People of the Elephant, who came to destroy the Kabah, were punished by Allah. This incident happened in the year in which the Prophet was born. Riding on, he reached the Jamarah, the three pillars at Mina, at which he cast seven pebbles, saying Allahu Akbar each time. The Prophet gave his second sermon at Mina, which was similar to the previous one at Arafat. Afterwards the Prophet offered his sacrifices, shaved his head and took off the ihram—the pilgrims’ dress. That was the day of the feast—(today we remember that day as Id al-Adha).
On the same day, the Prophet rode to Mecca, performed Tawaf, drank water at Zamzam and returned to Mina. At Mina people came to him, asking many questions about the pilgrimage. Some said, "I delayed in doing so and so," or "I performed something before it was due," and so on. But the Prophet would tell them: "No objection, no objection! Objections are only for the person who wrongfully violates the honor of his fellow-man."
At Mina the Prophet spent three more days for the throwing of stones. In the afternoon of Tuesday, the Prophet moved to Mecca, where he stayed in a tent and slept briefly. Before the morning prayer, he went to the Sacred Mosque and performed the Tawaf of Farewell.
The Prophet stayed in Mecca during Hajj for 10 days. Afterwards he left for Medina. At a place called, Dhul Hulaifa he rested for the night, and at the sunrise, entered his beloved city—Medina, the Radiant. When he first saw the city dwellings from a distance, words of praise started pouring from his lips: "Allah is most High. There is no deity save Him. He is One. No one is His partner. He is Lord of everything. All praise belongs to Him and He empowers all things. We are returning repentant, praying, prostrating ourselves, praising our Lord. Allah has kept His promise."The Prophet passed away two months after performing His Hajj.