The day of Thursday, 15th Muharram, A.H. 1283 (May 30, 1866), was that blessed and auspicious day in the Islamic history of India when the foundation stone for the renaissance of Islamic sciences was laid in the land of Deoband. Seeing the simple and ordinary manner in which it had been started, it was difficult to visualize and decide that a Madrasah beginning so humbly, with utter lack of equipment's, was destined to become the center, within a couple of years, of the Islamic sciences in Asia.Accordingly, before long, students desirous of studying the Holy Book and the Sunnah, the Shari'ah and the Tariqah (the spiritual path), began to flock here in droves from this sub continent as well as from neighboring and distant countries like Afghanistan, Iran, Bukhara and Samarqand, Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey and the far off regions of the continent of Africa, and within a short-time the radiant rays of knowledge and wisdom illumined the heart and mind of the Muslims of the continent of Asia with the light of faith (Iman) and Islamic culture.
The time when the Darul Uloom Deoband, was established, the old Madaris in India had almost become extinct, and the condition of two or four that had survived the ravages of time was not better than that of a few glow-worms in a dark night. Apparently it so looked at that time as if the Islamic sciences had packed up their kit from India. Under these circumstances, some men of Allah and divine doctors, through their inner light, sensed the imminent dangers. They knew it too well that nations have attained their right status through knowledge only. So, without depending upon the government of the time, they founded the Darul Uloom, Deoband, with public contributions and co-operation. One of the principles that Hazrat Nanautavi (may his secret be sanctified) proposed for the Darul Uloom and other religious Madaris is also this that the Darul-Uloom should be run trusting in Allah and with public contributions for which the poor masses alone should be relied upon.
The Darul-Uloom, Deoband, is today a renowned religious and academic center in the Islamic world. In the sub-continent it is the largest institution for the dissemination and propagation of Islam and the biggest headspring of education in the Islamic sciences. Such accomplished scholars have come out from the Darul Uloom in every period that they, in accordance with the demands of religious needs of the time, have rendered valuable services in disseminating and spreading correct religious beliefs and religious sciences. These gentlemen, besides in this sub-continent, are busy in performing religions and academic services in various other countries also, and everywhere they have acquired a prominent status or religious guidance of the Muslims. The fact is that the Darul Uloom, Deoband, was a great religious, educational and reformative movement in the thirteenth century Hijri. It was such a crucial and crying need of the time that indifference to and connivance at it could cause Muslims to be confronted with inestimable dangers. The caravan that comprised only two souls on 15th Moharram, A-H. 1283, has today in its train individuals from many countries of Asia!
For the last one century, the Darul Uloom, Deoband, has been considered an incomparable teaching institution for the religious education of the Muslims not only in the sub-continent but also throughout the Islamic world. Besides the Jam'a-e Azhar, Cairo, there is no such institution any where in the Islamic world that may have acquired so much importance in point or antiquity, resorting, centrality and strength of students as the Darul Uloom, Deoband, has. The foundation of the Darul Uloom had been laid in this obscure, sleepy village of India at the hands of such sincere and august men that within a short time its academic greatness was established in the world of Islam. And it began to be looked upon as the most popular educational institution of the Islamic world, students from the Islamic countries flocking to it for the study and research of different arts and sciences. A large number of personalities, well-versed in the religions sciences, found today in the length and breadth of this sub-continent has quenched its thirst from this very great river of knowledge, and eminent religious doctors (Ulama) have been once the alumni of this very educational institution. It is a fact that as regards the worth of academic services not only in the sub-continent but also in other Islamic countries there is no other educational institution except one or two, that may have rendered such weighty and important religious and academic services to the Muslim community. The achievements of the Ulama of the Darul Uloom in the fields of religion, education, missionary-work and book writing have been acknowledged repeatedly. And the achievements not only in India but also in other Islamic lands, and in the fields especially of guidance and instruction, teaching and preaching they seem to be ahead of all others. In the Muslim society of the sub-continent, the command a high rank and a lofty position. With the tumult of the fame of the Darul Uloom even the academic assemblies of Afghanistan, Bukhara and Samarqand reverberated. Us graduates became deans and principals of great Madaris, and it is an authentic history. And a fact to assert that this spring of grace of the Darul Uloom, Deoband, by virtue of its ethos, has been busy for more than a century. In quenching the thirst of the seekers of knowledge of different sciences and the whole of Asia is redolent with the aroma of this prophetic garden. Among the hundreds of thousands of seminaries in the world of Islam today there are only two such institutions on which the Muslims have relied most of all: the one is Jam'a-e-Azhar, Cairo, and the other is Darul Uloom, Deoband. The religious services both these institutions of learning have rendered to the Muslims are sui generis. These very religious, academic and intellectual services of the Darul Uloom have made it a cynosure in the Islamic world. And what is more astonishing is that the Darul Uloom without being dependent on the government has made all these advancements. The blessings (Barakat) of the Darul Uloom and its universal beneficence are indicating that upon this academic institution a special theophany (Tajalli) of divine and prophetic knowledge has cast its light, which regularly continues to attract hearts towards it. What and how many great achievements the Darul Uloom, Deoband, made, what and how many renowned personalities it produced and how they imprinted the stamp of their service and utility in every field of religious life. All these things you will know by going through this history of the Darul Uloom, Deoband.
However much pride and joy the Muslims of the sub-continent express over the existence of the Darul Uloom Deoband, there can be no doubt about its being correct and justified. The history of the Darul Uloom in the present times is a bright chapter in the history of the Muslims effort and endeavor; this great struggle for the survival of religion and freedom of thought cannot be over looked in the history of Islam and the Muslims. Darul Uloom, Deoband, is in fact a shore less ocean from which, besides those of this sub-continent, the seekers of knowledge of the whole of Asia are benefiting. If the history of the Darul Uloom is studied minutely, a perspicacious reader will not fail to see the reality that it is not merely an old-type teaching institution; it is in fact a stupendous movement for the revival of Islam and the survival of the community.
The establishment of this seminary in the land of Deoband and its stability is the result of a concerted effort and endeavor of the Muslims of the sub-continent. Service to religion, support to Islam, renaissance of Islamic arts and sciences and their dissemination, and help to the students craving religious knowledge are the special and momentous achievements of the Darul Uloom Deoband. For one hundred and fourteen years it has been rendering, as per the pious predecessors tack, the right-type of academic and gnostic training to the Muslims. Even as Cairo, after the fall of Baghdad, became the center of Islamic arts and sciences, exactly in the same way, after the decline of Delhi, academic centrality fell to the lot of Deoband. And great illustrious personalities rose up from this teaching institution, innumerable scholars were fostered in its laps, and thousands of Ulama, Shaikhs, traditionists, jurisconsults, authors and experts of other arts and sciences were produced here. And, having become an adornment in the firmament of knowledge and action rendered and are still rendering services to religion in different manners in every nook and corner of the sub-continent.The history of the Darul Uloom, Deoband, is a historical chapter on an epoch-making period in the history of Islam as a whole. The long and short of this is that this overflowing ocean of arts and sciences has so far assuaged the thirst of a very large number of the seekers of knowledge, who having become the vernal air, have spread its academic aura in the four corners of the world. Those who benefited from the Darul Uloom are like a luxuriant free the green and fresh branches and foliage of which it is not easy to compute.
Darul Uloom Deoband, has been a center of both the Shariah and the Tariqa from the very day of its inception. All the moons and stars in the sky of the Shariah and the Tariqa and knowledge and action that are at the time shining in the sub-continent have been mostly illuminated by this very brilliant sun, and have come out assuaged from this very head spring of knowledge and gnosis. Every one knows that most of the great Ulama of the sub-continent has been the alumni of this very institution. And those who feasted at the dinner-cloth of Darul Uloom are now present in most of the Asian countries, where as well as in the sub-continent and certain other foreign lands. They have enkindled the lamps of the Holy Book and the Sunnah, and have imparted the grace of instruction and guidance to countless people. Darul Uloom, Deoband, has played a great part in investing the Muslims thoughts and views with freshness and sacredness, their hearts with ambition and courage, and their bodies with strength and energy. Its beneficence universal and countless men, to satisfy whose academic eagerness there were no means available, have quenched their thirst from it. At the same time, on the model of Darul.Uloom sprang up many religious and academic springs, each having its own particular many of circle of its benefit and grace. They are all the stars of this very solar system by the light of which every nook and corner of the religious and academic life of the Muslims of the sub-continent is radiant.
Very little attention has been paid to this benefit of these ýreligious schools that on account of them the condition of millions of Muslim families has been ameliorated. The Muslims inferiority complex was removed and that through these schools became available to the community innumerable such individuals, who, according to the conditions and time, guided the Muslims in the different aspects of life.
Besides their great services in the revival of Islam, they awakened political consciousness among the Muslims and took leading part in the struggle for freedom as a result of which the countries of the sub-continent acquired independence.
Even as in the past the Darul Uloom, Deoband, has rendered invaluable services to the cause of Islam, the Muslims and the religious sciences. It is hoped that in future too it will continue to discharge the obligation of inciting the Muslims power of action, of strengthening the faiths and of preaching and propagating Islam. .
This gift from Allah Ta’ala must be used correctly, which in a way is showing thankfulness. Besides evil glances at the opposite gender, one other bad habit (with some people) is peeping into homes. This generally happens when visiting friends and relatives, waiting at the door before obtaining permission to enter. The temptation to peep through the window or open door of the house is a Shaitaani habit. Therefore, the correct procedure is to stand at the side of the door, even if the door is closed. Islam has taught us the highest standards of morals and ethics.
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) taught us to be very careful and cautious about our social lives. Each lesson from the life of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and the Sahabah (RA) must be held in the highest esteem. Therefore, never regard a simple lesson like looking into someone’s home to be inferior. So serious is the offence that Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) once reprimanded a person, saying, in a Hadith reported by Bukhari, “Had I known that you are looking (inside) then I would have pierced your eyes because seeking permission is exactly the reason (to prevent) the sight (into the wrong directions).” Another hadith reported by Bukhari and Muslim states that, “Should the people of the household find anyone peeping into their home, they are allowed to pierce the eyes.”
Once Sa’d ibn Muaaz (RA) approached the room of Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and sought permission to enter, facing the entrance of the room. Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam), by way of a hand signal requested him to move onto one side, saying, “Oh Sa’d! Stand in this way (on one side) when seeking permission to enter, because in reality it’s because of the sight that permission is sought.” (Shu’bul Imaan)
We need to exercise extreme caution when visiting friends and family – even those homes that we often frequent. A similar approach should be adopted to one’s parents’ home. Hadhrat Umar (RA) said that that person who places his sight inside the home before seeking permission has committed sin, which is an act of fisq.
Brotherhood and Unity amongst Muslims
Why is it that when the Muslims of the 21st century hear that there has been an earthquake in Indonesia, Pakistan or a Tsunami along the borders of Asia but do not feel pained? When they hear of such atrocities or sufferings happening to their beloved Muslim brothers across the world there is no shared grief or significant compassion? Why is it that today when we hear that our Muslim brothers and sisters around the world are being tortured mercilessly, their land and posessions destroyed/occupied; their children are being killed/enslaved in poverty and human rights are being annihilated, that we feel no pain?
While we are living and enjoying the comforts and luxuries of the 21st century, our brothers and sisters are being oppressed all around us. It has become such that we have become immune to hearing such afflictions. It has become such that we find it hard to shed even one tear.
My dear readers, whoever you are and wherever you are, have we forgotten the Hadith of Rasullullah ?
Rasullullah giving an example of Muslim unity is reported to have said in a Hadith:
“The Muslim Ummah is like one body. If the eye is in pain then the whole body is in pain and if the head is in pain then the whole body is in pain”
So we the Muslim Ummah, whatever colour, nationality or gender, wherever we are, are like this body. If we hear that any part of this Ummah is being oppressed, then we should feel this pain.
My dear readers, our oppressed brothers and sisters are crying out for help. They find that the Muslims of the 21st century are asleep and there is no one to help them. The reason why we the Muslims are collapsing is because we do not have any love amongst us. We harbour hatred for one another and our worldly matters and materialistic pursuits have taken over our lives.
Have we forgotten the beloved companions radiyallaho anhum of Rasullullah ? Have we even realised that they were of different colours and backgrounds. Hazrat Bilal was from Ethiopia , Hazrat Salman was of Persian decent, Hazrat Suhaib was from Rome and Hazrat Abu Zar was from Gifar.
They used to love each other more than real brothers. These were the Sahabas.
When Rasullullah made the Hijrah to Madinah, amongst them was Hazrat Abdur Rahman .
Rasullullah had just established peace between Hazrat Abdur Rahman and Hazrat Sa'ad Radhiallaho Anhu of Madinah. Rasullullah tells Sa'ad to take Hazrat Abdur Rahman as his brother. Hazrat Sa'ad says to Hazrat Abdur Rahman, “O Abdur Rahman, I am one of the richest men of Madinah, take half of my wealth and do whatever you want to do with it. I have two wives, take a look at them, whichever one pleases you, I will divorce her so that you can marry her.”
This is the love that the Sahaba had amongst them. Can we find any two people in the world like this today? And this is the love that Islam is asking from all the Muslims around the world today.
Has the time not come for all of us Muslims to unite again? The unity, which our Prophet has taught us, the unity that the Sahabas had, the Unity of Islam.(Inter-Islam)
Teach yourself and the family one Sunnah and one sin. Why sin? In order to recognize that it is a sin and identify to abstain from it.
- Every household should read the following daily:
100 times Kalima Tayyibah
100 times Durood Shareef
100 times Istighfaar.
- Meet and keep in touch with the pious.
- Some ta'leem should take place on a daily basis – reading of Hayatus
- Sahabah, Hayatul Muslimeen, Fadaail A'maal, etc.
- Learn to make dua for every need. Be thankful for everything.
Insha Allah, in practicing these simple points, it is hoped that greater love will be generated among family members and a greater deeni awareness will be created in the home environment.
How to Learn Tajweed
Tajweed and its application can only be learned under a qualified teacher. The rules themselves can be studied independently, but their correct application can only be done by listening to, reciting, and being corrected by, a qualified teacher of the Qur’an. Today even many Arabs are unaware of the rules of Tajweed. Unfortunately many do not know proper Tajweed. In the days of Rasulullah (sallallahu- alayhi-wasallam), there was no need for the study of Tajweed because they talked with what is now known as Tajweed; in other words, it was natural for them. Now, over 14 centuries later, colloquial Arabic has changed radically from the classical Arabic with which the Qur’an was revealed, and Arabs have to study Tajweed, just in the same way that non-Arabs do.
HOW TO LEARN TAJWEED
The first step is finding a qualified Qur’an teacher who will listen to you and point out your mistakes, and help you practice fixing them. You will need to learn the Arabic letters and vowels too. What if there aren’t any qualified teachers where I live? Then your task is going to be a little harder, but certainly not impossible. You need to work with tapes of good reciters, for example, the Imams of the Haram, or Shaikh Khalil Khusry. You will need to work on the pronunciation of letters by getting a description of the articulation points and practice placing your tongue, lips, or finding the place in your throat where the letter is articulated from, and compare it to the letter when recited by the Sheikh.
COMMON TAJWEED MISTAKES
The two most common tajweed mistakes made by non-Arabs are the timings of the vowels, and madd letters, and in the articulation points of the letters (makharij). This mistake, is a major problem that needs to be addressed by all non-Arabs, whether they are Westerners, Europeans, Africans, from the Indo Pakistani subcontinent, or from Eastern Asia. At the outset, the letters that occur in Arabic that are not common in other languages would be what one would imagine to be a problem, but in fact, there are letters in Arabic that are similar to other languages, but do not share the same articulation points with their counterparts. A third mistake incurred by Arabs and non-Arabs alike is in making proper stops and starts. There is more than one aspect to this mistake. The first aspect is that the proper way to stop on a word is by putting a sukoon, or absence of a vowel on the last letter of the word. It is not allowed to stop using the harakah, or vowel on the last letter of the word. The second aspect of stopping is that of stopping at a place that doesn’t contradict the meaning intended by Allah, the Exalted. The same mistake can occur when zstarting up after stopping and taking a breath. One cannot just start on the next word arbitrarily, instead the meaning needs to be considered, and the start should be on a word that portrays the correct and complete meaning, even if the reciter needs to go back two or three words.
One note that is of utmost importance. It is vital that the Muslim learn the Arabic letters and vowels and recite the Qur’an using them, NOT a transliteration. Transliterations do not take into account the various letters that sound similar to the untrained ear, but are very different in pronunciation. The Qur’an is the word of Allah, revealed to man as a guidance, and we have to be extremely careful to read it, as best we can, with proper pronunciation. Reading a transliteration can lead to changing the meaning of the Arabic Qur’an by mispronouncing letters.
Tajweed: It's importance
One of the many miracles of the noble Qur'an is that regardless of the number of times it is recited, one never gets tired nor bored with its recitation. Allah Ta'ala says in the noble Qur'an, "Indeed the believers are those who tremble with fear when Allah is remembered, and when the verses of the Qur'an are recited before them it increases their belief; and upon Allah they have complete trust." (8:2) One of the salient points mentioned in this verse is that when a believer recites the noble Qur'an in the correct manner, it increases his faith and belief in Allah. Reciting the noble Qur'an in the correct manner means to recite it with Tajweed.
What is Tajweed?
Tajweed means to recite every letter correctly, i.e. from its proper origin of pronunciation coupled with its stipulated attributes. Allah Ta'ala says in the noble Qur'an, "And recite the Qur'an with Tarteel (in a slow pleasant tone and style)." (73:4) The Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) has said, 'Indeed Allah desires that the Qur'an be recited in the manner it was revealed.' When asked about the meaning of Tarteel, Ali (Radhiallaahu Anhu) replied, 'It means that the Qur'an should be recited with Tajweed and with due observance to the rules of Waqf (pausing or stopping at the end of the verse).'
Necessity of Learning Tajweed:
Since the Qur'an emphatically commands us to recite the Qur'an with Tarteel, we have to recite it with Tajweed. Tajweed is not like all other subjects which we are able to separate from the Qur'an but instead Tajweed and Qur'an work hand in hand. According to some scholars, the verse, 'Verily my people have renounced the Qur'an' (25:30) has two interpretations. Firstly, it could mean that they had renounced the Qur'an by not believing in it and practicing upon it. And secondly, it could mean that they used to recite the Qur'an in such a disgusting manner that it sounded like senseless and meaningless jabbering.' Reading the Qur'an without Tajweed could also be included in the second interpretation. The Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) has said, 'The Qur'an will either testify in your favour or against you.' Hence, if we fail to observe the requirements of the noble Qur'an during our recitation, the Qur'an will testify against us. If we are unacquainted with these prerequisites, we are compelled to acquire the laws of Tajweed. Due to the vastness of the Arabic language, any small mistake in pronunciation of a letter or word may change the meaning of that word. For example, the word 'Qalb' (with q) means 'heart', if read 'Kalb' (with k), it will mean a 'dog'. So just as how in any other language we learn pronunciation of letters and words, for example, in English we learn that 'ph' stands for 'f' (as in phone) and not pone. Similarly, in the Arabic language, we also have to learn pronunciation of letters and words, which we term as 'Tajweed'.
Some people read so much of the Qur'an but because they do not know the correct pronunciation of the letters, they change the letters, which then changes the words which eventually leads to the changing of the sentence and meaning of the Qur'an. We should remember that from the time and generation of the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) till now, no one has ever denied this fact that Tajweed is definitely important. It is only now in our generation that people have lost respect and forgotten the status of Tajweed. We get some people nowadays who spend hours and hours reciting the Qur'an thinking that they are getting and attaining great rewards. But because their pronunciation of letters is incorrect, a very big problem arises. It sounds very small when we say, 'I am only pronouncing a letter incorrectly.' But did this thought ever cross our minds that when a letter changes in a word, the word changes and if a word changes in a sentence then the whole sentence changes and eventually the meaning also changes.
The Qur'an is the word of Allah. If we change the word of Allah then Allah Ta'ala will definitely get angry with us and take us to task. So from all this, we can see the importance of reading the Qur'an with Tajweed. May Allah give us the ability to read the Qur'an correctly so that we may earn the mercy of Allah Ta'ala.
SALAAM BEFORE ENTRY
The masnoon method in seeking entry as explained in the hadith is to
first make salaam: "Assalamu alaykum". Nabi (sallallahu alayhi
wasallam) cautioned not to grant permission of entry unless salaam is
PACE IN WALKING
The hadith indicates that walking very fast diminishes the noor from
the face of the mu'min. Abdullah ibn Mas'ood (RA) explains that the
Sahabah (RA) were discouraged from walking speedily like the Jews and
also very slowly like the Christians; however Muslims should walk
between both these paces.
EXCELLENCE OF CHARACTER
According to some narrations, a person once used filthy language /
badmouthed Abu Bakr (RA). He (Abu Bakr (RA)) remarked, "If in whatever
you say is truth, then may Allah Ta'ala forgive me. However if
whatever you say is lies, then may Allah Ta'ala forgive you".
RIVERS OF JANNAH
Basically, there will be four kinds of rivers in Jannah, viz. water,
milk, wine and honey.
STATUS OF THE SAHABAH (RA)
Saeed ibn Zaid (RA) says, "I swear by Allah that, any person who
participated with Nabi ((sallallahu alayhi wasallam) in any of the
battles, and dust settled on the face of such a person, then he can
never be equal (in status) even to one who enjoins good and engages in
ibadah lifelong…..even if the lifespan is that of Nuh (AS)".
ZIKR AT THE BAZAAR
Ibn Umar (RA) states that a person who remembers Allah Ta'ala in the
market place / bazaar, will on the Day of Qiyamah receive one noor for
every hair on his body.
REMOVE A DIFFICULTY
Abu Huraira (RA) states that whosoever removes any difficulty /
problem from the path of a mu'min, Allah Ta'ala will grant him dual
noor on the Pul Siraat (bridge); of which, on the one side of the noor
– only Allah knows the number of rewards.
Great emphasis has been placed on good character. Nabi (sallallahu
alayhi wasallam) admonished that from among the deeds, no deed is
equal in weight to good character. Aaisha (RA) heard Nabi (sallallahu
alayhi wasallam) saying that a Muslim attains the stage of a person
engaged in ibadah at night and a person fasting during the day when he
possesses good character.
Some names of Allah Ta'ala are exclusive and cannot be used by His
creation, for example, Rahman, Razzaq, Ghaffar, etc. It is unfortunate
nowadays, that people have become indiscriminately neglectful;
substituting names such as Abdur Razzaq with "Razzaq", Abdul Ghaffar
with "Ghaffar" and Abdur Rahman with "Rahman". What a tragedy – least
realizing that the caller, as well as the person called, are both
equally sinful. What is extremely disturbing to note is that this sin
is perpetuated day and night.
The Sahabah (RA) questioned Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) about
that day which will be equal to fifty thousand years – indeed a very
long day. Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) in reply said, "I swear by
that Being in whose Hand is my soul, that the day for the mu'min will
be light, the duration of time will be like of having performed fardh
salaah or even less".
Abu Huraira (RA) adds that the duration of time on that day, for
Muslims, would be like the time between Zuhr and Asr Salaah.
Parents must be ever cautious and over enthusiastic regarding their
children's' correct actions and good character. All energies should be
directed towards this and as well as inculcating the Sunnah of the
Anbiyaa (AS). Shaikh Abdul Wahhab Sherani (RA) points out that the
most profitable deed that any parent could offer to his children is to
make dua for their religious reformation.
*Extracted & translated from Ma'aariful Qur'aan of Mufti Muhammad
Shafee' Saheb (RA).